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Case Studies  
Stage 1 - Diagnosis  
Stage 2 - Identification and Selection of Interventions  
Stage 3 - Programme Design  
Stage 1 - Diagnosis  
Stage 2 - Identification and Selection of Interventions  
Stage 3 - Programme Design  
Stage 1 - Diagnosis  
Stage 2 - Identification and Selection of Interventions  
Stage 3 - Programme Design  

Study Location - Orissa

Stage 2

Identification and Selection of Interventions

The second stage of the design process is to take stock of all the information collated under Stage 1 and to conduct feasibility study of the aspirations and activities that rural women have articulated.

Step 7. Feasibility of women’s aspirations that could be further explored for designing relevant interventions.

Table 10. Activities identified for further exploration in Gumma.


Activities Identified for Exploration

Gajapati district-Orissa

Small business: Grocery Shop, Tea shops, Small petty shops, Retailing business (cloth shop), Tailor shops etc
Collective marketing of cashew by SHGs
Agriculture/Horticulture, enhancement
Value addition such as turmeric processing, grading and packaging, Masala making and packaging, making mixtures, eatables from rice, etc, Value addition to tamarind, ango/Jackfruit, lemon pickling
Poultry: Scaling it up
Goatery: Scaling it up
Minor skills enhancement: bicycle repairs, electronic goods repair, mechanical repairs, etc


In order to develop the ideas put forward in Table 11, interviews were held with the same group of respondents who articulated these ideas and also with the agencies available in the region, namely traders, finance providers, development departments, research organizations etc, which could potentially support these activities. This facilitated the analysis of the different activities (strengths and weaknesses) and the kind of support that would be required for the activities to be successful. The activities listed in Table 11 are those that were in most articulated by rural women in Gumma. (See Table 6 for full list)

Table 11. Feasibility study of activities for Gumma.





Small business
Grocery Shop
Tea shops
Small petty shops
Retailing business (cloth shop)
Tailor shops


Collective marketing of cashew by SHGs


Can be undertaken in the same or neighbouring village.
Do not need much specialised skill


Good market demand. Not a perishable fruit. Good production scenario so far


Too many shops already exists,
Most of the buying is seasonal- at the time of cashew harvest and during festivals

Still intimidated by the middlemen who have lost some of the business
Lack of adequate working capital


Though the community only needs credit to start these small businesses, lack of additional demand can result in losses. Not a viable livelihood option
Need working capital during the season to make substantial purchase
Need facilitation to link with wholesalers in cities/outside the state

Productivity Enhancement

In agriculture based villages, women would like to improve agriculture and purchase lands.
Most of them grow hill grams and enhancement of its quality can improve incomes

Lands are predominantly hilly and there is dearth of plain land.
Farming is mostly rain fed.
The land does not formally belong to the villagers. Most of it legally belong to the forest department

Soil and moisture conservation works can be undertaken and technological improvements can be emphasised on.
Income from agriculture can be improved marginally through productivity enhancements.
Scope exists for value addition and marketing and seeking technological solutions from this perspective

Value addition

  • Turmeric processing, grading and packaging


  • Masala making and
  • packaging
  • Making mixtures, eatables from rice, etc
  • Tamarind Deseeding
  • Mango/Jackfruit, lemon pickling



Raw material is locally produced.
Ample demand in the adjoining states.
Good market networks.

Chillies and turmeric are locally produced
Ample market locally and in nearby regions

Locally in demand. Purchasing from outside the block
Local production and market demand. Nearby Andhra markets have demand for deseeded tamarind as well
Not much capital needed for this
Local production of raw material.
Without value addition, much of the produce get wasted
Local demand exists.


Need capital and training on quality management
Quality control skills which are lacking now.
Can be sustainable only if undertaken commercially by SHGs or federation of SHGs
Need training.
Quality control awareness.
Need proper market linkages


Need training, post-harvest management, quality control, packing and a reliable supply chain


Most of them are seasonal products, harvested at different times of the year.

Value addition should be therefore developed as an enterprise that could be operated round the year.
Need an integrated value chain approach to deal with this issue.
This would involve multiple actors to deal with multiple issues (credit, technology and markets)
Has huge potential for increasing employment and improving income

Poultry: Scaling it up

Very ad hoc and small scale right now
Women have the requisite skills
Ample Local demand for Poultry meat (chicken)

Sickness in birds is a major problem
Needs technical support to manage this (Poultry extension, diagnosis and treatment)
Marketing tie-ups needed if this enterprise has to expand

Veterinary support is very weak.
Few para vets trained by NGOs, but the numbers are too few to make an impact.
Need to develop a value chain linking the producers and the markets.

Goatery: Scaling it up

Currently on a limted scale.
Usually the local traders give the villagers small goats to raise and then share in the profits.
Women already have the skills to rear goats.
Local demand exists.

Need training in proper management practices and also veterinary support.
Very weak veterinary support

Might have impacts on the ecosystem if scaled up mindlessly.
Need to explore the demand and supply situation and feasibility

Minor skills enhancement: bicycle repairs, electronic goods repair, mechanical repairs, etc


There is dearth of such skilled people within the block.
Every small work they have to approach dist HQ
Less capital requirement


Need training


Women can be trained in some of these skills- Need further exploration


The feasibility study in Table 11 highlighted the following three activities that have the potential to be successful.

  • Value addition of farm/forest produce
  • Scaling up back yard poultry and goatery,
  • Collective marketing of cashew

These ‘best bets’ were based on discussions with a number of groups including community groups, officials, traders, financial agencies.

Step 8: Identification of intervention with back-up support (including microfinance services, credit availability and access; market demand and supply of goods and services, market network; knowledge based institutions and other service providers and value addition possibilities)

Organisation support is required to underpin the four activities identified in Step 7. Some of the organisations that could potentially support the activities are identified and given in Table 12.

Table 12. Organisational support to underpin activities in Gumma.


Support Services Needed

Support and Service Providers

Value Addition of farm/forest produce

Training in how to grade, packaging, quality control, storage, marketing back- ups-tie ups.
This might also involve research on value chain development
Also need finance mainly working capital

OTELP has currently tied up with MART (Marketing and Reach Team) to promote collective marketing
ORMAS (Orissa Rural Development and Marketing Society), Panchayat Raj Department – promoting different agro-enterprises dealing with value addition
OMFED and private agro-processors such as Aaaren Foods- Procurement from women SHGs in neighbouring Mandalsahi area

Scaling up backyard poultry and goatery

Some of the households are engaged in this on a small scale (household level)
Market already exists.
SHGs need to be mobilised to take up collective production and marketing
Need tie ups with government veterinary departments, private practitioners or processing companies who provide buy-back and technical support

Local market exists for the produce and local traders link with the producers
More number of youth from these villages could be trained to function as para vets.
Need more training on proper management (feeding, disease control etc)

Collective marketing of cashew

Cashew is a cash crop in this block and even though the market is quite well established, if the marketing efforts are done collectively by the community then this would be a boon for them.

Mobilising SHGs,
Providing them with short term working capital grants
More use of ICTs to access market information

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