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What We Did

Stock Taking  
Supply and Demand  
Community Led Workshops  
Pilot Testing the Methodology  

Study Locations


Land Use Pattern


Household Food Security and Livelihood


Main Source of Income


Women Livelihood Profile



Feasibility Study of Women's Aspirations  
 Sharing Results

Household Food Security and Livelihood


Majority of the households face food shortages. While occasional food shortages are high among households in Mawphlang (61%) and Minjur (46%), Gumma has a relatively high incidence of chronic food shortage. Therefore, the majority of the households in these locations are poor and food insecure

Table 2. Food Security Status Of the sample blocks

Households with…

(percent to total)

(percent to total)

Mawphlang -Meghlaya
(percent to total)

surplus of food




food just enough




food shortage occasionally




chronic food shortage




Table 3. Main features of the village livelihood in study locations

Livelihood Pattern

Part of Minjur Block
Tamil Nadu

Gumma Block

Mawphlang Block


  •  Mainly rain fed agriculture in few villages –paddy is the main crop
  •  Limited irrigation through water from local water bodies (ponds, tanks) – saline soil and low ground water table
  • Shifting cultivation-rain fed
  • Millets, cereals, pulses, turmeric
  • Small patches of plain land used for paddy cultivation


  • Subsistence farming on small landholdings
  • Mostly lease land cultivation
  • Rain fed agriculture
  • Potato and vegetable cultivation in summer



  • Few households maintain milch animals to supplement their income.
  • Only local sale of milk and no organized milk society
  • Limited availability of green fodder
  • Goats and poultry insignificant
  • Poultry(1-2 birds in most of the households)
  • Goats and cattle rearing limited
  • Small scale poultry and piggery

Use of forests

  • Dependence mainly for fuel-wood
  •  Livestock grazing


  • Fuel-wood
  • Growing cashew, banana, pineapple, mango
  • Collection of tamarind and broomsticks
  • Fuel-wood extraction


  • High dependence on fisheries in coastal villages-32 villages mainly depend on the lake for their livelihood
  • Over fishing has led to reduced fish catch




  • Heavy dependence on labour (mostly unskilled), rice mills, brick kilns, construction work
  • Year round employment is an issue and only seasonal employment
  • High dependence in destitute and poor households


  • High dependence on unskilled work-limestone quarries, charcoal units
  • Opportunities limited during winter months


  • Not significant
  • Young and adolescent girls go to nearby garment manufacturing companies and computer companies
  • Chain migration to Arunachal Pradesh
  • High Migration to big cities in South India
  • People generally unwilling to migrate for labour work


Table 3 reveals the following:

  • Too many people depend on a limited and declining natural resource base (agricultural land, forests, fishing grounds) in all the locations. Over-fishing has already led to reduced fish catch in Minjur and fishing is now undertaken in rotation by the villages.

  • Within the livestock sector, there is wide variation across all the locations. In Minjur, livestock are mostly milch animals. In Gumma, it is mainly poultry and goats. In Mawphlang, it is poultry and pigs

  • Dependence on unskilled labour is high in most of the locations

  • Migration is an important coping strategy for households in Mawphlang and Gumma

  • Though horticulture in forests and collection of NTFPs do provide diverse livelihood options in Gumma, people sell most of these produce in distress and without any value addition. Poultry is an important activity in Gumma and Mawphlang.
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